ISP Squash

About Squash


Squash is a racket and ball sport played by two players in a four-walled court with a small, hollow rubber ball. The players alternate in striking the ball with their racquets onto the playable surfaces of the four walls of the court. The objective of the game is to hit the ball in such a way that the opponent is not able to play a valid return. There are about 20 million people who play squash regularly world-wide in over 185 countries.[1] The governing body of Squash, the World Squash Federation (WSF), is recognized by the International Olympic Committee (IOC), but the sport is not part of the Olympic Games, despite a number of applications. Supporters continue to lobby for its incorporation in a future Olympic program.


General Rules of Play
You can only hit the ball once before your opponent hits it. The contact must also be singular; you cannot ‘carry’ the ball.
* The ball can only bounce once on the floor.
* You must make every effort to clear your shot and ensure your opponent has room to play their shot.


* Focus/Concentrate on the task
* The ability to keep thinking about the game plan.
* To concentrate, without distraction, for an entire match including:
* The ability to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the opponent
* Keep reviewing the basics of the game plan for its effectiveness.
* Stay positive right to the end of the match.
* Keep our mind within the court and focus on the task at hand.
* Minimise distractions from outside the court, including the Referee


Understanding interference
The striker must make every effort to give the opponent a clear path to the ball. The opponent must also make every effort to get to the ball. The following must be practiced to avoid interference:

A striker must make every effort to provide his opponent with unobstructed and direct access to the ball
The striker must give a fair view of the ball to his opponent both before and after the ball is hit
Last, the opponent must give the striker freedom to hit the ball directly to all of the front wall
If interference is called, the play is a let, or a stroke. A stroke is a point awarded to the obstructed player. A 'No let' is given in the following situations:

The opponent would not have made a good return
The opponent did not make sufficient effort to get to and play the ball
If the opponent created his own interference
If the opponent ignored the interference and played on
A let is always given if one player stops from hitting the ball due to a reasonable fear of striking their opponent with either the ball or the racquet. The let is allowed even if no interference actually occurred.

The referee will award a stroke to a striker if the opponent does not make every effort to get out of the way and the striker would have made a good return. A stroke is also awarded if the player would have made a winning return, even if the opponent makes every effort to avoid interfering. Last, the referee may also award a stroke to a striker if their opponent makes unnecessary physical contact or has an excessive racquet swing.

In addition to previous mentions of lets, rallies are replayed when:

The striker does not hit the ball in a manner to ensure the safety of his opponent
A player is distracted by an occurrence on or off the court
The receiver is not ready for the serve and doesn.t attempt to return it
The ball breaks during play
Court conditions affect play
A player may appeal a decision that affects the rally by asking " Let, please ". The referee stops play and decides on the appeal. Penalties that the referee may levy include a warning, and a stroke, game, or match awarded to the opponent.

For sake of good sportsmanship, players should not fish for lets. Fishing is when the player tries to bend the rules to win the point. In other words they play the players not the ball. So instead of making every effort to play the ball, they will stop play and hope the referee will give them stroke.


Squash Competition Format
The Commonwealth Games Squash competition is held according to the rules of the World Squash Federation (WSF) and will feature five medal events: Men’s Singles, Women’s Singles, Men’s Doubles, Women’s Doubles and Mixed Doubles.

Men’s and women’s events have the same format and rules. Events are conducted in a knockout format, with the best two players progressing to the gold medal match. Players knocked out in the first round of the main draw are entered into the Plate competition and players knocked out in the first round of the Plate competition are entered in the Consolation Plate competition. Players knocked out in the second round of the main draw are entered into the Classic Plate competition.

Singles events will have a 64 draw except where entries dictate. If there are more than 64 entries there may be an initial round before the round of 64. If there is a round of 64 there will be six rounds of competition and if there is a round of 32 there will be five rounds of competition.

Men’s, women’s and mixed events have the same format and rules. The Doubles competition of up to 32 pairs, involves a pool competition with the winners of each pool progressing to the knockout stages. Depending on entry numbers, each pool will be contested by three, four or five teams and similarly depending on entry numbers, the knock-out stage will consist of two or three rounds.


Team line-ups must be based on order of merit, with the best player at number one, the second-best player at number two, and so on. The most accepted and traditional method of establishing an order of merit is the challenge ladder system. If a player wins a challenge match, they move up the ladder; if they lose, they move down. Coaches must be sure that whatever systems they use are logical and consistent throughout the season and throughout the ladder, and acceptable to their teams and to other coaches.

Illness and Injury: A player should not lose their place on a team ladder simply because they have been ill or injured for any length of time. However, the longer a player is unable to practice and play matches with their team, the more likely it is that their capabilities would diminish while the capabilities of their peers would improve. Therefore, a player returning to the line-up after an extended absence (2 weeks or more) should either be re-inserted at their old position or offered a challenge against the player who was in the position immediately below them when the absence began. Should the returning player lose this challenge, they should be allowed to play at least one more challenge down prior to their participation in their first team match.

There must be a competition-based rationale for a returning player’s spot in the line-up. The longer a player has been out, the more compelling the need for downward challenges to re-establish the order of merit.

Changes to Line-ups: A line-up cannot change in terms of order of merit on consecutive days of competition. A line-up can, however, be adjusted when a player or players are added or removed from it. When a player is added to or removed from a line-up, all other players are moved accordingly in the established order of merit. For example, if the number 4 player on a team is injured and has to be removed from the line-up, the number 5 player would move up to the number 4 position, the original number 6 player would move up to the number 5 position, and so on.

Challenges to Line-ups: Each coach is obligated to provide opposing coaches with match line-ups in a timely fashion for review and inquiries. An opposing coach can challenge a player’s ladder position based on their match and challenge record that season. A coach must have available upon request a list of challenge results available for the opposing coach to inspect before each match, and the results of earlier season matches are available online


1. Make sure your grip is correct! You want to have a neutral grip that allows you to hit both the forehand and backhand from the same grip. There should be a V shape that runs between your thumb and forefinger. Your forefinger should extend up the shaft of the racket giving you extra control of the racket head.

2. Lift your racket up on the way to the ball. As soon as you know which side the ball is going, take your racket head back so that by the time you arrive you are ready and in position to hit the ball. You will be amazed by how much time you have and the options you can create.

3. Keep your shoulders facing the side wall at the point of impact on both the forehand and backhand side. If you over rotate and end up facing the front wall you’ll most likely drag the ball into the middle of the court.

4. Link your movement to your shot. You want to step and hit so that your swing starts just as your foot plants in the lunge position. This helps create a balanced, stable position where a transfer of weight takes place through the shot.

5. Give yourself the best possible chance and don’t let the first game slip by as a result of not warming up properly. Hit the ground running and get yourself match ready for the word go. Download our extensive guide to warming up and see your performance improve dramatically!

6. Make sure your serve hits the side wall. If you’re able to hit a high serve that hits the side wall before dropping into the back corner, you will cause your opponent lots of problems. The backhand volley is one of the most difficult shots in the game and serve gives you a real chance to put your opponent under lots of pressure from the first shot of the rally.

7. Try to play from in front of your opponent! If you can hit the ball into the back corners and take charge of the T zone you’ll find the game much easier than if you are always behind. Think about using height to get the ball into the back corners and then push forward towards the T zone so that you’re ready for the next shot.

8. Volley more! Volleying takes time away from your opponent and allows you to stay closer to the T. Learn to volley and try to take the opportunities whenever you can.

9. Hit the open space! If you can hit the ball where your opponent isn’t then you’re going to make them run! Avoid hitting the ball back to your opponent but also be aware that a poor shot into open court can leave you exposed.

10. Learn to hit a good straight drive! If you can hit the ball straight into the back corners from all areas of the court then you will limit your opponent’s chances to volley and give yourself the chance to get in front and apply pressure.

11. Learn how to return serve properly. Start with an open stance facing the front wall and watch your opponent whilst standing approximately 1 racket length away from the corner of the service box. This starting position allows you to watch where the ball is going and then transfer weight into the shot.

12. Play with the right ball for your level! There are different balls that bounce to varying degrees. The pro ball should only be played with when you can hit it hard enough to warm it up and make it bounce properly.


World Squash Federation
Web Site:

Professional Squash Association
Web site:

Women's International Squash Players Association
Web Site:

European Squash Federation
Web site:

England Squash
Web site:

National Federation sites of world
Web site:


Beginner's guide to squash

Squash is a fast-moving game that requires skill, speed and supreme fitness.

The ball can reach speeds of up to 170mph and players can burn off up to 1000 calories per hour of squash - higher than most other sports.

It began in the 19th century and was originally called squash racquets, to distinguish it from the game of racquets.

Harrow School, just outside London, is credited as the game's birthplace - when young pupils who couldn't compete with older boys for space on the proper racquets courts invented their own version using a rubber ball instead of a hard one.

Squash court graphic
* The basic principle is to keep hitting the ball against the front wall until your opponent cannot get it back any more.
* Players must keep one foot in the service box as they serve.
* The ball must hit the front wall between the service line and the out line, and land in the area behind the short line on the opposite side of the court.
* For the remainder of the rally, players must hit the wall above the board and below the out line.
* The ball is only allowed to hit the floor once before each shot, but it can hit as many walls as the player wants.
* If a player fails to hit the ball before it bounces twice, hits the ball into the floor before it hits the front wall, or hits it outside the out line, then they lose the rally.
* A player can also lose a rally if the ball hits them or their clothing before they strike the ball.

* In the traditional, British system you can only score points when you are serving.
* When the player receiving serve wins a rally, the score does not change, but he or she becomes the server.
* So if you are facing serve, you need to win two rallies to register a point.
* A match is the best of five games, and for a player to win a game they must reach nine points.
* If the score reaches eight-all, however, the player who is not serving at the time can choose whether to play to nine points or to 10 points.
* During points, a player can be impeded or unsighted as they try to play their next shot, and can ask for a let.
* If the referee decides this is deserved, he or she can order the point to be replayed, or award the rally to the player who has been affected.

* Experienced players know that the best way to win a game of squash is to make the opponent to do the running.
* Pakistani squash player Shahid Zaman (r) returns the ball to Dutchman Laurens Anjema
* The player on the left is dominating the "T" - where the middle line intersects the front line
* England's Peter Nicol, a former world number one, says: "If you're at the "T", you're at the centre of the court, you're in control and generally you're in a position to win the game."
* Keeping the ball low lessens the chance of your opponent reaching it before it bounces twice.
* Nicol says: "The back two corners are the most important areas on a squash court. If your opponent does manage to get it out of there, then you're in a strong position to control the rally after that.
Players use a different ball depending on their standard.
The recognised colours are:
Double Yellow - extra super slow; competition standard
Yellow - super slow
Green or white - slow
Red - medium
Blue - fast
Modern racquets are usually made of composite materials such as kevlar and graphite.

They are 70 cm (27 inches) long, with a maximum strung area of 500 square centimetres (approximately 80 square inches) and a weight between 110 and 200 grams (4-7 ounces).

* Squash is a hugely popular sport, in the UK and across the globe.
* There are thousands of clubs across the country and equipment is relatively cheap. Mini Squash also teaches youngsters how to play the game.
* All you need are some indoor trainers, a racquet and a ball. The make-up of the balls varies according to whether they are used for amateur or professional competition.
* Courts can be booked easily, whether they are at specialist squash venues, gyms or sports centres.


The Fitness Formula for Squash and racket sports consists of a number of items:

Cardio-respiratory fitness;
Muscle endurance, a combination of the ability to deliver appropriate anaerobic and aerobic power together with the ability to recover (mainly anaerobic recovery);

Muscle strength, which is more important in tennis than the other racket sports;
Muscle speed, an important component of power in all the racket sports;

Low percentage body fat.


Day to day training of full-time squash players increases daily energy and carbohydrate requirements. If squash players do not consume adequate carbohydrate between training sessions, they may suffer fatigue and unwanted weight loss and this will directly affect their performance and training gains. Squash players in heavy training need to start recovery nutrition immediately after exercise. Ideally, squash players should aim to consume 50 – 100 grams of carbohydrate within 30 minutes after training. Recovery snacks should be combined with fluid to replace fluid lost during exercise. Squash players who are undergoing puberty need extra energy and nutrients for the growth and daily activity. Each of the following provides approximately 50 grams of carbohydrate. Eat 1 to 2 of these portions to ensure fast recovery after a heavy training and repeat this pattern after 2 hours until the normal eating pattern have been resumed.

650 – 800 ml of sports drink
500 ml of fruit juice
1 1/2 banana (medium)
3 medium pieces of fruits
1 jam sandwich made with 2 thick slices of bread and plenty of jam
1 energy bar


Squash is a popular sport with many participants in Australia and worldwide. There are approximately 15 million players in 135 nations.1,2 The small dimension of the squash court occupied by two people, swinging racquets and a small ball potentially travelling in excess of 200 km/hour, with the ability to penetrate the eye socket, contribute to a high risk of eye injury in this sport.3–10 Internationally, squash has been reported as either the first or second highest ranked sport associated with sports related eye injuries.6,11–13

These injuries are almost completely preventable14 by protective eyewear.15 Standards approved polycarbonate eyewear is the only appropriate eyewear, protective against squash eye injuries.14,16–18 Most prescription lens materials can splinter on impact13,19 and other unsuitable types of eyewear, such as open eyeguards, may exacerbate these injuries.15,20

Fewer than 10% of players actually wear suitable eye guards when playing squash.6,19,21,22 To foster protection, it is necessary to understand the reasons why so few players wear such protection. The literature suggests that knowledge of injury risk contributes to decisions to adopt safety measures.23–25 Surveys have found many players who use inappropriate eyewear believe it to be suitably protective.6,19,21,22 Competition players tend to use protection in matches but not during practice.21 However, the literature has not addressed influences on use of eyewear or how this might vary according to player characteristics.

The purpose of this study is, therefore, to describe player characteristics associated with knowledge and use of protective eyewear.


A high-level performance in squash depends on many factors or elements of the game, among which appropriate playing tactics are clearly of great importance. It manifests itself in a variety of strokes executed by the player or group of players in a match. Given the great number of different strokes and their execution in various parts of the court, a player may select and use different strokes in identical or similar circumstances or the same strokes in different circumstances. The proper choice of stroke depends on the player’s tactical assessment that leads to the choice of the most efficient stroke in the given circumstances


Circuit training is an excellent way to improve mobility, strength and stamina. The circuit training comprises 6 to 10 strength exercises that are completed one exercise after another. Each exercise is performed for a specified number of repetitions or for a set time before moving on to the next exercise. The exercises within each circuit are separated by a short rest period, and each circuit is separated by a longer rest period. The total number of circuits performed during a training session may vary from two to six depending on your training level (beginner, intermediate, or advanced), your period of training (preparation or competition) and your training objective.


Hard Versus Soft Game
Serve Plus Two Shots
Return of Serve - Crosscourt
Return of Serve - Straight
Three Shot Rally with Drops
Hunt for Winning Combinations
Self Fed Volley Drop
Hard Serve to Self
Straight Drive
Straight Drive
Crosscourt to Hit Side
Boast - Drive
Boast and Drive or Drop
Sidewall Rail Game
Drop and Crosscourt; Straight and Boast
Boast and Drive or Crosscourt
Crosscourt, Deep Drive, Boast
Lob, Volley, Boast
Hard Versus Soft Game
Solo Deep Volleys with Crosscourt
Volley Attack Boast
Crosscourt Drop
Drop and Drive or Crosscourt
Boast, Drop and Drive
Boast, Drop, Drive
Hunt for Winning Combinations
Attack Boast - Drive
Beginner Circling
Skidboast - Drive
Short Drive - Drop - Overdrive - Backwall Boast
Speed Up the Game
Me vs. Me - Frontcourt
Reverse Angle From Backcourt
Kill Shot - Off Back Wall
Boast, Straight Drop or Crosscourt Drop, Drive
Front Court Options
Boast - Drive...Surprise!
Solo Soft Straight Drives
Early Racquet Preparation
Crosscourt - Self Feed
Self Toss with Floating Boast
Self Fed Volley Drop
Simple Straight Drop
Solo Boasts
Solo Backwall Boast
Top Spin Half Volley
Solo Kills
Fake off the Backwall
Straight Drive For Good Length
Straight Hard Drive for Dying Length
Boast, Straight Drop or Crosscourt Drop, Drive
Backcourt Crosscourt Drop or Drive
Crosscourt to Good Length


Generating power the right way in squash is key to improving your game. It’s important for beginners to learn the proper way from the beginning, in order to avoid bad habits and keep improving in the right ways!

Generating power is a big part of the game I see people doing incorrectly.

Very often I see good players who could be GREAT players, or even play in the PSA if they had better methods of generating power in their shots.

While every player will develop their own little habits and ways of hitting the ball, there are some basics that are common to every good player. Even the professionals each have their own style, but in this guide I’ll cover what they all have in common: the ability to hit the ball hard on both their forehand and backhand!